Elements and Principles of Art
Students will continue reviewing the Elements and Principles of Art by creating examples of each one in their sketchbook.
ELEMENTS OF ART: The visual components of art such as, color, form, line, shape, space, texture, and value.
Line: An element of art defined by a point moving in space. Line may be two-or three-dimensional, descriptive, implied, or abstract.
Shape an element of art that is two-dimensional, flat, or limited to height and width.
Form: an element of art that is three-dimensional and encloses volume; includes height, width and depth (as in a cube, a sphere, a pyramid, or a cylinder). Form may also be free flowing.
Value: the lightness or darkness of tones or colors. White is the lightest value; black is the darkest. The value halfway between these extremes is called middle gray.
Space an element of art by which positive and negative areas are defined or a sense of depth achieved in a work of art.
Color an element of art made up of three properties: hue, value, and intensity.
- Hue: name of color
- Value: hue’s lightness and darkness (a color’s value changes when white or black is added)
- Intensity: quality of brightness and purity (high intensity= color is strong and bright; low intensity= color is faint and dull)
- Texture An element of art that refers to the way things feel, or look as if they might feel if touched.
PRINCIPLES OF ART: Balance, emphasis, movement, proportion, rhythm, unity, and variety; the means an artist uses to organize elements within a work of art.
Rhythm: a principle of design that indicates movement, created by the careful placement of repeated elements in a work of art to cause a visual tempo or beat.
Balance: a way of combining elements to add a feeling of equilibrium or stability to a work of art. Major types are symmetrical and asymmetrical.
Emphasis.:a way of combining elements to stress the differences between those elements.
Proportion: a principle of design that refers to the relationship of certain elements to the whole and to each other.
Gradation: a way of combining elements by using a series of gradual changes in those elements. (large shapes to small shapes, dark hue to light hue, etc.)
Harmony: a way of combining similar elements in an artwork to accent their similarities (achieved through use of repetitions and subtle gradual changes)
Variety : a principle of design concerned with diversity or contrast. Variety is achieved by using different shapes, sizes, and/or colors in a work of art.
Movement: a principle of design used to create the look and feeling of action and to guide the viewer’s eye throughout the work of art.